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Title:     Development and validation of a unidimensional domain-specific entrepreneurial self-efficacy scale
Authors:     Schjoedt, L., & Craig, J. B.
Date:     2017
Detail:     Abstract: Purpose: Given The Nature Of Entrepreneurship, A Domain-specific Self-efficacy Scale Should Pertain To Venture Creation, Be Unidimensional, And Be Developed And Validated Using Nascent Entrepreneurs - Persons For Whom Self-efficacy May Be Most Important. Extant Measures Employed In Entrepreneurship Research Do Not Meet All These Criteria. The Purpose Of This Paper Is To Develop And Validate A Unidimensional Entrepreneurial Self-efficacy (ESE) Scale Based On Samples Of Nascent Entrepreneurs. Design/methodology/approach: Data From A Sample Of Nascent Entrepreneurs And Items From PSED I Were Used To Develop And Assess The Validity Of A New ESE Scale. To Further Establish Scale Validity, A Comparison Group From PSED I Along With A Sample Of Nascent Entrepreneurs From PSED II Were Employed. Findings: A Unidimensional Three-item Self-efficacy Scale For Assessing A Person's Belief That S/he Can Create A New Business Successfully Is Developed And Validated Using Samples Of Nascent Entrepreneurs And A Control Group. Research Limitations/implications: The Scale Offers Opportunity To Enhance Research-based Assessment Using A Parsimonious, Reliable, And Valid Unidimensional Measure Of ESE. The Scale May Enhance Future Research Findings, As Well As Promoting Reconsideration Of Past Research Findings, On Many Issues In The Entrepreneurship Literature. Originality/value: This Research Uses A Sample Of Nascent Entrepreneurs To Provide A New Three-item Scale For Assessment Of ESE That Is Parsimonious, Valid, And Unidimensional.

Praxis: The 18-item Scale Rigorously Developed In This Research Captures The Individual And Organizational Level Dimensions Of Stewardship Climate And Has Application For Better Understanding Human Resource-related Aspects Of Family And Non-family Businesses. Notable, Stewardship Climate Impacts Innovation More So In Family Businesses Than Non-family Businesses, Prompting Leaders Of Both Organization Types To Better Understand This Complex, But Vital, Construct.

Schjoedt, L., & Craig, J. B. (2017). Development And Validation Of A Unidimensional Entrepreneurial Self-efficacy Scale. International Journal Of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 23(1), 98-113. Doi:10.1108/IJEBR-11-2015-0251

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Title:     Moving Beyond Socioemotional Wealth: Toward a Normative Theory of Decision Making in Family Business
Authors:     Scott Newbert and Justin B. Craig
Date:     2017
Detail:     Abstract:. Business-owning families are widely believed to make decisions in order to increase their authority over, influence on, and identity with their businesses. Yet, because the resulting socioemotional wealth is intended to be enjoyed by the family alone, this view reflects a largely self-interested approach to decision making. We, therefore, call on family business scholars to leverage the work of social economists (i.e., Amitai Etzioni) and moral philosophers (i.e., Adam Smith) in order to develop normative guidance for family owners seeking to pursue their own interests as well as those of the other stakeholders in society to which they are accountable.

Newbert, S., & Craig J. B. (2017). Moving beyond socioemotional wealth: Toward a normative theory of decision making in family business.

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Title:     Stewardship Climate Scale: An assessment of reliability and validity
Authors:     Neubaum, D. O., Dibrell, C., Thomas, C., & Craig, J.B.
Date:     2017
Detail:     Abstract: While stewardship theory is often used to explain family business outcomes, no prior empirical study has used a validated measure of stewardship. We, therefore, surveyed 846 managers and subordinates from 221 family and nonfamily firms in the United States and Australia to develop a reliable and valid Stewardship Climate Scale. We found family firms have a stronger stewardship climate and the relationship between stewardship climate and performance is mediated by innovativeness, and the effects of stewardship are stronger in family firms, confirming the value of stewardship theory, and our scale, when explaining family business outcomes.

Praxis: In practice, this stewardship climate scale survey can evaluate both the stewardship levels of individuals and of the overall organization in order to provide an understanding of the overarching stewardship climate within a company. Stewardship impacts innovativeness in family businesses.

Neubaum, D. O., Thomas, C., Dibrell, C., & Craig, J. B. (2017). Stewardship Climate Scale: An assessment of reliability and validity. Family Business Review, 30(1), 37-60. doi:10.1177/0894486516673701

Kellogg Insight Article: Are Your Employees Putting the Company's Interests First?

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Title:     Selling issues with solutions: Igniting social intrapreneurship in for-profit organizations
Authors:     Alt, E., & Craig, J. B.
Date:     2016
Detail:     Abstract: We offer an explanation of the issue selling process when issues deviate from the dominant logic of organizations. Our main objective is to articulate the multiple ways in which socially oriented innovations can be legitimated in for-profit organizations through the work of bottom-up change agents, also known as social intrapreneurs. To unpack this multiplicity, we draw on both institutional theory and the framing perspective in social movements. Specifically, we propose how sellers may advance social issues with solutions by drawing on the logic composite of both organizations and selling targets. By providing an account of the social issue selling process in for-profit organizations, we consider how the nature of an issue shapes selling efforts when it diverges from the dominant logic, and we shed light on how the content choices of sellers relate to the meaning systems of organizations and targets.

Praxis: How those trying to gain attention and get traction in organizations has long challenged researchers and practitioners. Using the context of social initiatives in for-profit organizations, this study discusses how those who are hoping to gain much needed attention and traction frame their conversations, specifically, by linking them with potential positive outcomes.

Alt, E., & Craig, J. B. (2016). Selling issues with solutions: Igniting social intrapreneurship in for-profit organizations. Journal of Management Studies, 53(5), 794-820. doi:10.1111/joms.12200

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Title:     Establishing how natural environmental competency, organizational social consciousness and innovativeness relate
Authors:     Dibrell, C., Craig, J. B., Kim, J., & Johnson, A.
Date:     2015
Detail:     Abstract: This article investigates the moderating effects of organizational social consciousness on the natural environmental competency and innovativeness relationship. Organizational social consciousness reflects the organization's awareness of its place and contribution to the larger system in which it exists and is developed through an organization's social responsibility, ethics, culture, corporate values, and the view of its stakeholders. Through our study of key strategic decision makers from organizations located in the USA, we operationalize organizational social consciousness and demonstrate the efficacy of this construct in relation to the organizational-level constructs of environmental management competency and innovativeness. Our results reveal that organizational social consciousness positively strengthens the natural environmental competency to organizational innovativeness relationship.

Praxis: Using innovation as an outcome variable, this research links attitudes towards the stewardship of the natural environment to the organization's espoused social consciousness to establish the extent to which leaders need to pay attention to current and future impact of their decisions.

Dibrell, C., Craig, J. B., Kim, J., & Johnson, A. J. (2015). Establishing how natural environmental competency, organizational social consciousness and innovativeness relate. Journal of Business Ethics, 127(3), 591-605. doi:10.1007/s10551-013-2043-1

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Title:     Examining relationships among family influence, family culture, flexible planning systems, innovativeness and firm performance
Authors:     Craig, J. B., Dibrell, C. & Garrett, R. P.
Date:     2014
Detail:     Abstract: The Purpose Of This Article Is To Draw On The Resource-based View Of The Firm And The Upper Echelons Theoretical Perspective To Position Family Influence, Family Business Culture And Flexible Planning Systems As Drivers Of Firm Innovativeness, And Subsequently Firm Performance. We Establish These Relationships Using SEM Statistical Techniques To Analyze Responses Of Small- To Medium-sized Family Businesses Using Established Survey Instruments. We Find Evidence That Family Influence Positively Influences Family Culture, That Family Culture Improves The Ability Of Families To Be Strategically Flexible And That This Flexibility Positively Impacts Firm Innovativeness, Subsequently Benefitting Firm Performance. The Implications For Practitioners Are Discussed.

Praxis: TBD

Craig, J. B., Dibrell, C., & Garrett, R. P. (2014). Examining Relationships Among Family Influence, Family Culture, Flexible Planning Systems, Innovativeness And Performance. Journal Of Family Business Strategy, 5(3), 229-238. Doi:10.1016/j.jfbs.2013.09.002

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Title:     Exploring relationships among proactiveness, risk-taking and innovation output in family and non-family firms
Authors:     Craig, J. B., Pohjola, M., Kraus, S., & Jensen, S.
Date:     2014
Detail:     Abstract: In An Empirical Investigation Of 532 Finnish Firms, And Using The Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) Literature To Frame Our Arguments, We Demonstrate That Relationships Among Proactivity, Risk-taking And Innovation Output Differ In Family And Non-family Firms. Specifically, We Find Evidence That Risk-taking Does Not Affect Innovation Output In Family Firms, Whereas In Non-family Firms, Innovation Output Is Increased Through Risk-taking. Also, Proactive Family Firms Influence Their Innovation Output More Positively Than Proactive Non-family Firms Do. This Study Adds Important New Insights To The Growing Knowledge Of EO, Which Are Discussed In The Following For Both Academic And Business Audiences.

Praxis: Relationships Among The Three Dimensions Of Entrepreneurial Orientation Are Explored To Establish Further Where Differences Between Family And Non-family Enterprises Manifest.

Craig, J. B., Pohjola, M., Kraus, S., & Jensen, S. H. (2014). Exploring Relationships Among Proactiveness, Risk-taking And Innovation Output In Family And Non-family Firms. Creativity And Innovation Management, 23(2), 199-210. Doi:10.1111/caim.12052

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Title:     Linking the formal strategic planning process, flexible planning systems, and innovativeness to firm performance.
Authors:     Dibrell, C., J. B. Craig, & Neubaum, D. O.
Date:     2014
Detail:     Abstract: This Study Explores The Link Between Financial Performance And The Formal Strategic Planning Process, Planning Flexibility, And Innovativeness Of 448 Firms In A Multi-industry Sample. The Results Suggest That Firms' Formal Strategic Planning Processes And Planning Flexibility Are Positively Associated, And Each Is Positively Related To Innovativeness. In Addition, Innovativeness Fully Mediates The Relationships Between Firm Performance And The Formal Strategic Planning Process And Planning Flexibility.

Dibrell, C., Craig, J. B., & Neubaum, D. O. (2014). Linking The Formal Strategic Planning Process, Planning Flexibility, And Innovativeness To Firm Performance. Journal Of Business Research, 67(9), 2000-2007. Doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2013.10.011

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Title:     Social issues in the family enterprise
Authors:     Van Gils, A., Dibrell, C., Neubaum, D. O., & Craig, J. B.
Date:     2014
Detail:     Abstract: In This Introduction, We Discuss Social Issue Research In The Management And Family Business Literatures, Focusing On Ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility, And Philanthropic Practices Of Family Enterprises. Next, We Introduce And Highlight Four Articles Accepted For Publication. The Editorial Concludes By Presenting Future Research Questions At The Social Issues-family Business Interface. Our Review Of 35 Articles, As Well As Those Included In This Special Issue, Suggest That Family Businesses Are More Attuned And Attentive To Social Issues And Stakeholders Than Nonfamily Business. Noneconomic Motivations (e.g., Reputation, Socioemotional Wealth, And Stewardship) Appear Particularly Salient To Family Enterprises.

Praxis: This Timely Capture Of The Current State Of Research Linked To Social Issues In Family Enterprises Highlights Something Which Many Assume. Specifically, That Family Enterprises Operate On A Dual Logics Platform In Which Social And Economic Motivations Exist In Unison.

Van Gils, A., Dibrell, C., Neubaum, D. O., & Craig, J. B. (2014). Social Issues In The Family Enterprise. Family Business Review, 27(3), 193-205. Doi:10.1177/0894486514542398

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Title:     A governance-based typology of family foundations: The effect of generation stage and governance structure on family philanthropic activities
Authors:     Lungeanu, R., & Ward, J.
Date:     2012
Detail:     Abstract: This Article Brings Together Research On Philanthropy, Family Business, And Governance To Examine Patterns Of Giving By U.S. Family Versus Nonfamily Independent Foundations. The Authors Use A Sample Comprising The 200 Largest U.S. Independent Foundations In 2007 To Show That Family Foundations Are More Focused In Their Grantmaking Than Nonfamily Foundations. Board Size Moderates This Relationship. They Also Offer A New Typology Of Family Foundations To Show That The Generation Stage Of The Family And The Foundation Board's Composition Are Associated With Different Levels Of Grantmaking Diversity In Family Foundations But In Dissimilar Ways. Scholarly And Practical Implications Are Discussed.

Praxis: Members Of Grant-making Family Foundations Can Understand Their Strategies Better By Understanding Their Age, Stage, Generation And Composition Of Their Board Members.

Lungeanu, R. & Ward, J. L. (2012). A Governance-based Typology Of Family Foundations: The Effect Of Generation Stage And Governance Structure On Family Philanthropic Activities. Family Business Review, 25(4), 409-424. Doi:10.1177/0894486512444603

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